The crackdown extended to academics, who were banned from leaving the country in an unprecedented move announced by the Turkish government on Wednesday.
Ankara says the coup was masterminded by US-based preacher Fethullah Gulen and the massive crackdown appears to be targeting individuals suspected of any connection to Erdogan's ally-turned-foe. In Washington, the State Department confirmed that Washington did receive some "materials" from Ankara, but that it is working with the Justice Department to review and analyze "whether they constitute a formal extradition request".
Erdogan said Sunday he is receptive to reinstating the country's death penalty in the aftermath of the coup attempt.But EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini warned that such a step may end Turkey's EU membership hopes.
The Guardian reports the Erdogan government has now fired more than 15,000 employees at the education ministry, 257 officials at the prime minister's office, and 492 clerics at the directorate for religious affairs, while demanding the resignation of 1,500 university deans.
Erdogan made his announcement in a live television broadcast late on Wednesday evening in front of assembled government ministers after a meeting of the National Security Council that lasted almost five hours.
Turkey has always been polarized between Erdogan's supporters and his critics over his Islamist and autocratic tendencies, but on the night of July 15, he was able to turn tens of thousands of supporters into the streets, making a call through TV channels against the coup attempt.
Erdogan and U.S. President Barack Obama discussed the status of Gulen during a call on Tuesday, the White House said.
He will chair meetings in his palace on Wednesday of the cabinet and the National Security Council, after which a series of emergency measures are expected to be announced.
"While there has been global and unanimous support for the democratically elected government of Turkey in reaction to the military coup, the measures introduced today go in the wrong direction", the association said.
Days after a failed coup attempt in Turkey, the country's jets carried out cross-border strikes against Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq, killing some 20 alleged militants, state media reported Wednesday.
More than 50,000 state officials have been sacked or suspended.
The state of emergency was needed "in order to remove swiftly all the elements of the terrorist organisation involved in the coup attempt", Erdogan said at the presidential palace in Ankara.
"There's very little the USA can do further militarily in Syria without the co-operation of the Turkish military".
Soldiers in Istanbul opened fire on protesters and fighting erupted in Ankara, with planes bombing the parliament building. "We can say that by not accepting the offer, he paved the way for its failure", the agency quoted Turkkan as saying.
Amid the round-up of alleged coup plotters, the shadow of the death penalty hovers, with Erdogan refusing to rule out the return of capital punishment despite warnings from Brussels that this would end Turkey's European Union ambitions.
The cleric, Fethullah Gulen, has denied all knowledge of the coup - and has suggested that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government could have staged the coup as a way of consolidating power and eliminating government opponents.