"That's why the Scottish Government has published proposals that we hope are taken seriously, but thus far nearly two-thirds of the way to the triggering of Article 50 we know no more about the UK's position than we did the day after the referendum and that is increasingly unacceptable".
The SNP leader also hinted that a soft Brexit could persuade Scotland to remain in the United Kingdom and keep the possibility of an independence referendum at bay.
Sturgeon indicated on the Andrew Marr show that the SNP's core message during a referendum would be the divisive prospect of Scotland's fate being determined by rightwing Tories ruling from London for the next 20 years.
Sturgeon said: "We want to try to work with others across the United Kingdom, across the political spectrum, to try to keep the United Kingdom in the single market".
Speaking on the BBC's Good Morning Scotland the First Minister said if the United Kingdom strikes a deal which allowed for continued access to the single market, and handed Scotland new powers over immigration, the SNP could put its push for independence "to one side".
Sturgeon added: "Am I going to stop arguing for independence or believing in independence?"
"In terms of the timescale of Brexit, that's what I've been very clear about".
"How you respond to the sensible, compromise consensus proposals that the Scottish Government has put forward will tell us much, possibly everything we need to know, about whether Scotland really is an equal partner or whether that is just rhetoric".
The prime minister plans to trigger the Brexit negotiations by the end of March.
The Scottish Government recently published its Brexit proposals, with Sturgeon arguing for the United Kingdom to remain in the single market, while outlining options for Scotland to stay in the trade area if the United Kingdom pursues a "hard Brexit".
Prior to this announcement and Britain voting to leave the European Union, she said a new referendum for Scottish independence from Britain was "highly likely".
The Hollyrood leader met with the Chief Minister in London previous year to discuss common ground as both Scotland and Gibraltar voted in favour of remaining in the European Union.
Hard Brexit would imply Britain leaves the European Union single market and a soft Brexit implies they have access to it.
Patrick Harvie, the Scottish Green party leader, told the Sunday Times his party would press Sturgeon to stage that second vote if there was a hard Brexit.