This is the latest in a series of demonstrations of Einstein's 103-year-old theory of general relativity applied in the most extreme circumstances.
The results were perfectly in line with the theory of general relativity - and not explained by Sir Isaac Newton's ideas - which exclude such a shift. But this is the first time they've been detected by observing the motion of a star near a supermassive black hole. "So it's very important in astronomy to also check that those laws are still valid where the gravitational fields are very much stronger".
As the star approached its closest point to the black hole, on 19 May, it reached mind-boggling speeds - so fast that it was subject to near light-speed effects predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity.
It was observations in the early 2000s of the closest stars orbiting Sgr A*, like the gravitationally redshifted star S2, that gave astronomers really convincing evidence that Sgr A* contains a supermassive black hole in the early 2000s.
"The highly elliptical, 16-year-period orbit of the star S2 around the massive black hole candidate Sgr A* is a sensitive probe of the gravitational field in the Galactic centre", said the research paper on this topic, published earlier today.
Caught in the iron grip of the galaxy's most powerful gravitational field, a star known as S2 passed within a scant 20 billion kilometres (12.4 billion miles) of the supermassive black hole lurking at the heart of the Milky Way this past May, streaking by at an astonishing 3 percent the speed of light, or more than 25 million kilometres per hour (15 million mph).
Erin VanDyke lives on her family farm and has more than 35 years of hands-on experience with the use of livestock guard dogs for predator control.
The scientists now hope to observe other theories of black hole physics.
In the new work, astronomers have measured both of these effects.
"Light from S2 is stretched to longer wavelengths by the very strong gravitational field of the black hole".
The group of scientists started to monitor the central area of the Milky Way at the European Southern Observatory 26 years ago. "You can bring the light together from these four telescopes and thereby generate a super telescope. and that does the trick", study co-author Reinhard Genzel, astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, elaborated. Frank Eisenhauer, also from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. Jansky wanted to investigate further to find out why radio waves were coming from interstellar space, but Bell Labs was not interested, and no one else followed up on the discovery for several years. The black hole at the centre of the galaxy is about 10 times the size of the sun in diameter, but has a mass of about 4m solar masses.
Dr. Genzel and colleagues used ESO's SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) instrument to measure the velocity of S2 towards and away from Earth and the GRAVITY instrument to make extraordinarily precise measurements of the star's changing position in order to define the shape of its orbit.
Artist's conception illustrating the star's trajectory over the past few months.