The unmanned spacecraft's mission is to get closer than any human-made object ever to the center of our solar system, plunging into the Sun's atmosphere, known as the corona, during a seven-year mission.
After launching on the Delta-IV Heavy rocket - which sounds cool and probably is, yeah, fairly cool - at 03:31 local time in Florida (07:31 GMT), Nasa confirmed the flight trajectory "looked good" and that the probe had successfully separated from the rocket.
The spacecraft will make its first close approach in early November, when it will travel 15 million miles from the Sun - inside the Sun's corona (aka the solar atmosphere).
The mission had been expected to launch on Saturday, but was delayed at the last minute due to a technical problem. It'll fly just over 6 million km from the surface - protected from the searing temperatures by a revolutionary new heat shield. "We're in for some learning for the next several years", said Eugene Parker, 91, the retired solar physicist after whom the spacecraft is named.
Scientists hope this close encounter will give them a better understanding of solar wind and geomagnetic storms that risk wreaking chaos on Earth by knocking out the power grid. The spacecraft will also be prepared for the first of seven planned Venus flybys scheduled for October 2.
"The sun is full of mysteries", said Nicky Fox, project scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab. "All the configurations are already over, we are now in the process of assembling the engineering model prototype and then the testing stage will begin", Banerjee, who is part of the Aditya L1 mission, said.
The project, with a $1.5 billion (1.17 billion pounds) price tag, is the first major mission under NASA's Living With a Star program.
The probe will reach tremendous speeds as it orbits the sun.
"Parker Solar Probe is a mission of extremes", Kelly Korreck, an astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, said. "But we have to go there".
The craft will be the fastest manmade object ever - flying at speeds of 430,000mph - and endure temperatures of more than 1,300C while looping around the Sun a planned 24 times. "Even I still go, 'Really?"
The probe is guarded by an ultra-powerful heat shield that is just 4.5 inches (11.43 centimeters) thick, enabling the spacecraft to survive its close shave with the fiery star.
The probe will orbit the blistering corona, withstanding unprecedented levels of radiation and heat, in order to beam back to Earth data on the sun's activity. If there's any tilting, the spacecraft will correct itself so nothing gets fried. Hurling a spacecraft to the sun can actually make sense.
"We've had to wait so long for our technology to catch up with our dreams", Fox said. "It's incredible to be standing here today".
The second is how does a solar wind start?
As he watched the spacecraft fly into the sky, Parker joked: "I'll bet you 10 bucks it works".
The Associated Press Health & Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Department of Science Education.