In the 36,000-character white paper on Monday, which Beijing said was meant to clarify the facts on bilateral economic ties and set out its stance and reasonable solutions, it pointed out that bilateral trade relations were of great significance not just to both countries, but the world. Meanwhile, $US110 billion of goods from the US will become subject to Chinese retaliatory tariffs around the same time.
"We are going to win it", Trump's Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said of the trade war on "Fox News Sunday".
The U.S. targeted $200 billion worth of items from China, at a rate of 10 percent.
Imports of American goods a year ago totaled $153.9 billion while the United States bought Chinese goods worth $429.8 billion, according to Chinese customs data.
Earlier, the two sides imposed 25 percent penalties on $34 billion of each other's goods in July and another $16 billion in August.
Among the US items expected to be hardest hit, according to an analysis from the Trade News Centre, are printed circuit boards, desktop computers, computer parts and metal and wooden furniture.
As China called off planned trade talks with USA officials, the latest round of retaliatory tariffs went into effect on Monday.
Beijing cancelled the visit of a Chinese negotiating team expected September 27-28 in Washington, The Wall Street Journal said.
China has made "enormous efforts" to stabilise bilateral economic and trade relations by holding discussions and proposing practical solutions, but the United States has been contradicting itself and constantly challenging China, reported Xinhua.
They point to China's status as a major manufacturer and a growing competitor in smartphones and other technology. A senior White House official said last week the United States will continue to engage China but added there was no date for further talks.
Economists warned that a protracted bilateral dispute would eventually harm growth not just in the USA and China, but across the broader global economy.
This week the United States sanctioned a Chinese military procurement organisation, drawing a sharp protest from Beijing and a decision to postpone planned military talks.
Analysts believe that China may be waiting for USA mid-term elections early next month for any hints of changes in Washington's policy stance.
Trump earlier this month accused China of targeting rural voters who support his presidency by hitting agricultural goods.
"Following President Trump's threat of further escalation, we now think the probability that all imports from China will ultimately be subject to tariffs has risen to 60 percent", the bank's analysts wrote in a research note, quoted by media. Business groups say American companies also report Chinese regulators are starting to disrupt their operations through slower customs clearance and more environmental and other inspections.