Schumer and Ratajkowski, who both spoke earlier at the rally on stage with Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, were photographed in the Hart building standing against a wall next a police officer.
The vast majority of the arrests - 293 - took place on the Hart atrium floor.
Among those arrested was Janet Redman of Washington D.C. She said the demonstrators were processed in a park outside the Russell Senate Office Building.
(Ratajkowski wrote on Twitter that she was arrested.) A photo of the two of them being detained and sharing a bag 'o snacks surfaced on Twitter soon after.
A video shared on social media shows the Hollywood star being herded into a group of other protesting women by a policeman who asks her "do you want to be arrested?"
She also took to social media to share a snap with the message: 'Proud to be here with so many incredibly fearless survivors and proud people who care about this nation in such an important time'. "Men who hurt women can no longer be placed in positions of power".
Ratajkowski concluded: 'I demand a government that acknowledges, respects and supports women as much as it does men'.
USA Today reported that the 37-year-old comedian attended a protest against Kavanaugh on Thursday outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse. "That's what we're gonna do, we're gonna keep showing up, and no matter how this goes, they cannot keep us down. So we had people across generations who realize this is a scary time for democracy and a scary time for women, women of color in particular".
In another video from the scene, Schumer talks directly to a woman's camera to say hello to her daughter.
A rep for Schumer did not immediately respond to request for comment.