"It basically, kind of blocked off the US and other countries from exporting products like ultra-filtered milk or like, protein powders from milk into Canada, and kind of protected the Canadian ultra-filtered milk market", Williams said.
Bruno Letendre, head of the association that represents Quebec's milk producers, said the concessions are the equivalent of 13 days fewer production for his members.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says dairy farmers will be compensated for their expected losses under the new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, making the pledge directly at a meeting with their representatives on Thursday. "[U.S. President Donald] Trump has turned the absurdity of American dairy, a system that needs reform to survive, into a talking point to help Republicans in the upcoming byelection".
"We've seen California farmers, ranchers and agricultural marketers lose sales because of the retaliatory tariffs from Canada, Mexico and in particular from China", he said. "This is a very complex agreement and certainly those details may affect us in a number of areas in the long run".
In Quebec, meanwhile, politicians lamented that its key dairy sector was paying the biggest price in order to get a deal. "Dairy farmers across the country have faced challenges with those trade deals".
Kara O'Connor, government relations director for the Wisconsin Farmers Union, said the small wins in Canada won't fix the underlying problem in the American dairy industry.
"Today the United States is measuring their success in terms of what they got and Canada is measuring their success by measuring what they didn't have to give up, so it's pretty clear which end of the stick we are on", Scheer told reporters.
Mercer said the deal also could help restore Mexican confidence in USA agricultural products, as it "preserves the duty-free access and ends the renegotiation".
The general sentiment among manufacturers is one of relief, said Dennis Darby, president and CEO of Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters.
Dairy Farmers of Canada issued a terse statement nearly immediately after the 11th-hour agreement was announced late Sunday, following 14 months of hard negotiations between the parties. South Korea is our fifth largest export market.
He says the province does $389 billion worth of trade per year with the U.S.
"They are gaining access to our market, and at the same time shutting us out of theirs", Wiens said.
Bradford and Kubursi both said the tough negotiations from the months leading up to the new agreement will have taught Canadian officials a little about their trading partner, President Donald Trump. "The environmental impact of a 20,000 cow farm, the social impact of hiring principally undocumented labour below minimum wage to work in the farms, those are things that are very common in the USA and completely unacceptable in Canada". Though, they argue that the policies are needed to compete with other countries that also protect their dairy farmers.