Their cases have been referred to a court while investigations into another 10 people suspected of involvement continue.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been calling for the Saudis involved in Khashoggi's murder to stand trial in Turkey, but the Saudi government has denied that request-much to Erdogan's consternation.
"We find the statement of Saudi Arabia about the murder of Khashoggi positive but not sufficient", Cavusoglu said. "The necessary equipment and people were previously brought in to kill and later dismember him". The order to kill Khashoggi, who had criticized the Saudi monarchy over the previous year, had come from the leader of the Saudi team in Istanbul, Shaalan said, without naming any of the suspects.
Al-Jubeir said the kingdom is investigating and holding those responsible to account "to make sure this doesn't happen again".
"These individuals who targeted and brutally killed a journalist who resided and worked in the United States must face consequences for their actions", the Treasury said in a statement.
The 17 individuals, the U.S said, are the 15-man hit squad that traveled to Turkey to carry out the operation, the Saudi consul general in Istanbul, Turkey, where the killing took place, and a senior adviser to Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. The New York Times reported just this week that Turkish intelligence had collected a phone recording that may link Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Thursday's statement by the prosecutor did not say whether either was among those indicted and provided no other names.
Hours after the prosecutor's announcement, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir told reporters the crown prince had nothing to do with the killing.
The U.S. sanctioned 17 Saudi officials over the death of U.S. -based journalist Jamal Khashoggi, as the White House seeks to quell global outrage over his killing while preserving its relationship with a key ally in the Middle East.
Implicated in the murder are the once-powerful deputy chief of Saudi Arabia's intelligence, General Ahmed al-Assiri, who gave the order to repatriate Khashoggi, and an unnamed "head of the negotiating team" who flew to the Istanbul consulate had ordered his murder, Shaalan said.
Khashoggi, a critic of MBS's supposed reform programme, was killed after he entered the consulate on October 2 to obtain a document certifying his divorce. One Turkish official told Reuters that officials who heard the recordings, which include Khashoggi's killing as well as conversations leading up to the operation, were horrified but their countries had done nothing.
The prosecution said the mission commander contacted a forensics expert to join the team to clear any evidence from the scene "in the case force had to be used to return the victim".
Riyadh has repeatedly changed its narrative of Khashoggi's death and tried to distance its top leadership, particularly Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, from the killing. But after deciding that moving Khashoggi to a safe house would not be possible, a team leader made a decision to kill the journalist, according to the prosecutor.
The journalist's body parts were handed over to an agent outside the consulate grounds, a spokesman for the public prosecutor's office said on Thursday.
Riyadh, after insisting that Khashoggi left its consulate alive, said more than two weeks afterwards that he died in a "brawl" that arose from a dispute with people he met there.
Sent to cover the conflict in Afghanistan, Khashoggi sympathised with the mujahedeen in the 1980s war against the Soviet occupation, which was funded by the Saudis and the Central Intelligence Agency.