Left-hander Jadeja kept up the attack after a 123-run partnership with Agarwal for the fourth wicket.
On the first day, Indian pacers shared seven wickets as Bangladesh was bowled out for 150 in its first innings. The fans chanted Dhoni's name every time Pant made a mistake during the series against Bangladesh and South Africa.
Agarwal survived a reprieve on 32 when Imrul Kayes dropped an easy chance at slip off Abu.
Shami ended Mushfiqur's resistence and struck on successive deliveries to stop the Bangladesh tail from wagging.
India's pace bowlers led by Mohammed Shami, who took three wickets, dealt with Bangladesh on the opening day after the tourists chose to bat first on a green wicket.
Batting remained tough for Mominul and Mohammed Mithun, who was trapped lbw for 13 by Shami finding swing and seam movement.
"I think it's a new way to bring excitement in test cricket".
The champion off-spinner added though that the hosts were surprised by Bangladesh´s decision to bat first on a wicket with a green tinge.
Recently, there were reports suggesting that MS Dhoni might don the commentator's hat for the historic day-night Test between India and Bangladesh at the Eden Gardens later this month.
India were wasteful in the field, though, with a number of catches going down - three of them dropped by Ajinkya Rahane.
Wicketkeeper-batsman MS Dhoni is not a part of the national team since India's shocking loss to New Zealand in the 2019 World Cup semifinal.
Captain Shakib Al Hasan was banned from all cricket for two years with one year of that suspended after the all-rounder was found to have breached the International Cricket Council's Anti-Corruption code.