The ban also means that Russian sportsmen and sportswomen will not be able to perform at the Olympics in Tokyo next year under their own flag and national anthem.
It is still unclear how WADA's latest ruling will affect Russian cyclists at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games and the various UCI world championships.
Initial allegations of doping came four years ago, and WADA investigators discovered that the Russian Anti-Doping Agency tampered with drug testing data earlier this year.
But the body also chose not to impose "any special monitoring or supervision or takeover of RUSADA's anti-doping activities" over the four-year period, saying recent audits of the agency have found that it is "effective" in helping to fight doping in Russian Federation.
Jonathan Taylor, chair of WADA's Compliance Review Committee (CRC), told journalists here today: "Do I expect the decision of CAS to be different from the decision of the WADA Executive Committee today?"
"WADA must get tougher and impose the full restriction on Russian athlete participation in the Olympics that the rules allow", Tygart said last week.
The first, that has been running for a while, is the belief, supported by documentaries and the McLaren Report, that Russia's doping is state sponsored and institutional, and that's why Russia's doping problems are more severe than, say, the United States, which also has a high number of athletes that have tested positive for banned substances.
Specialists from WADA were granted access to the database of the Moscow Anti-Doping Laboratory in January this year and copied 24 terabytes of information on Russian athletes' doping samples collected between 2012 and 2015.
The WADA decision was widely predicted, with the body's president, Craig Reedie, having made a presentation Saturday to the Olympic Summit, participants of which "strongly condemned those responsible for the manipulation of the data from the Moscow laboratory".
"Flagrant manipulation" of the Moscow lab data was 'an insult to the sporting movement worldwide, ' the International Olympic Committee said last month. At least 105 athletes from the 387-strong Russian Olympic team announced last week have been barred from the Rio Games in connection with the country's doping scandal.
That position is opposed by most of WADA's athlete commission.
Russian Federation will also be banned from hosting any worldwide sporting events for 4 years.
One of the conditions for the reinstatement of Russian anti-doping agency RUSADA, which was suspended in 2015 in the wake of the country's doping scandal but reinstated a year ago, had been that Moscow provide an authentic copy of the laboratory data.
Russia were also at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, forcing a total of 168 Russian athletes compete under a neutral flag. "The blatant breach by the Russian authorities of RUSADA's reinstatement conditions, approved by the ExCo in September 2018, demanded a robust response. But this is as far as we could go", said Linda Helleland, a Norwegian lawmaker who has long pushed for a tougher line against Russian Federation.
Yuri Ganus, chief of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency and a rare critical voice inside Russia, called for a change in the decision-making figures in the Russian sports world, telling reporters in Moscow that, "They are applying unacceptable, old-school approaches".
May 2016 - The New York Times publishes explosive testimony by Grigory Rodchenkov, the former director of the anti-doping laboratory in Moscow.