Blankfein, who endorsed Hillary Clinton in the run-up to the 2016 United States election, tweeted that if Democrats voted for Sanders "the Russians will have to reconsider who to work for to best screw up the U.S.".
Sanders, the U.S. Senator from Vermont, narrowly won the New Hampshire primary on Tuesday and set up the Democrats for a close race on March 3, known as Super Tuesday, when 14 states and territories cast their votes.
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He continued: "Sanders is just as polarising as Trump AND he'll ruin our economy and doesn't care about our military".
Mr. Blankfein, a former investment banker who left the top job at Goldman Sachs in 2018 after a 12-year tenure, has not let the attacks on corporate America go unnoticed and has tussled online with both candidates.
Following his win within the New Hampshire major final night time, Sanders has emerged because the front-runner for the Democratic nomination to face President Donald Trump in November's election. "If I am Russian, I am going with Sanders this time round", the previous Wall Avenue titan tweeted.
Sanders and rival Democratic contender Senator Elizabeth Warren have made fixing the country's wealth inequality a focus of their presidential campaigns.
Mr. Blankfein, a registered Democrat, supported Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election and has donated to Republicans in the past.
This is not the first time the two have had a public argument.
He and Senator Elizabeth Warren of MA have faced continued disdain from Wall Street for their full-throated attacks on corporate excess and support for new taxes on billionaires to tackle wealth inequality.
Blankfein tweeted that (Brooklyn native) Sanders would "ruin our economy".
"That's how looks and sounds the panic from the elite wall street", wrote on Twitter, the campaign Manager Sanders Faiz Shakir.