According to the UN's World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), temperatures on the Antarctic continent have risen by nearly 3C over the past 50 years, and that about 87% of the glaciers along its west coast have "retreated" in that time. "We will want to look very critically at the station's metadata (how long was it in place, how good has its observations been, what type of instruments were used, when were they last calibrated, etc.)", he said in an email.
The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest-warming parts of the world.
Scientists on the Brazilian antarctic programme say this appears to be influenced by shifts in ocean currents and El Niño events: "We have climatic changes in the atmosphere, which is closely related to changes in permafrost and the ocean".
NOAA revealed the Northern Hemisphere broke its January record with temperatures of 2.7 degrees above average, while the Southern Hemisphere had temperatures 1.4 degrees above average.
Schaefer said monitoring data from these areas could indicate what is in store for other parts of the region. Schaefer also argues that the new temperature measurement is a signal that something new is happening in the area.
It comes as the Antarctic has registered a temperature of more than 68F (20C) for the first time, prompting fears of climate instability.
As oceans and atmospheric temperatures warm, Antarctica has born the brunt, especially Pine Island which is its most vulnerable glacier and is the single largest contributor to sea level rise of any ice stream in the world.
"We know that the ice sheet is beginning losing mass, that means it's melting and that meltwater is contributing to sea level rise", Tim Naish, of Victoria University of Wellington, told Al Jazeera.
The past decade has been the hottest on record with 2019 the second-hottest year ever, after 2016. The final month was additionally Antarctica's hottest January. Meanwhile, sea ice in Alaskan waters has completely melted away, according to satellite data from the US National Weather Service, while unprecedented bushfires have burned down around 11 million hectares of Australian land since September.
"The number one threat to almost all penguin species today is global warming", she told Al Jazeera.
And humans should worry about the drop in the number of penguins, according to the author.
"The dramatic decline we're seeing in their numbers is an indication that the overall health of the ecosystem they inhabit is also in decline", deNapoli said.