"The answer is clear", wrote Justice Gorsuch.
"We agree that homosexuality and transgender status are distinct concepts from sex", Gorsuch wrote in the majority's opinion. In May 2018, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals refused to reconsider a 1979 decision wrongly excluding sexual orientation discrimination from coverage under Title VII's ban on sex discrimination and denied his appeal. But the new law still forbids cities and counties from making their own rules about bathrooms and other anti-discrimination policies. Gorsuch conceded that point but said what mattered was the law's text.
In a dissenting opinion, Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas blasted the ruling as judicial activism.
"But we are judges, not Members of Congress", Kavanaugh wrote.
The decision came in response to three cases.
In the third case - R.G.
Stephens' case was the first trans rights case to come before the Supreme Court and came at a time when attacks on trans people have spiked and the federal government and conservative states have moved to erode the rights of trans people. Aimee Stephens, fired by a Detroit funeral home after revealing plans to transition from male to female, died in May. Donald Zarda, who sued after being fired as a skydiving instructor in NY, died in 2014.
Bostock, an award-winning child social services coordinator, was sacked from his job as in Georgia after his boss discovered he had joined a gay softball league.
In ALTITUDE EXPRESS INC. v. ZARDA, Donald Zarda, a skydiving instructor, was sacked from his job because of his sexual orientation.
The ruling comes just a few days after US President Donald Trump rolled back Obama-era regulations that prohibited discrimination in health care against transgender patients.
"There are important contexts where sex discrimination is still legal under federal law: businesses open to the public and recipients of federal grants, like soup kitchens and drug treatment programs", he said.
"It is absolutely going to be influential because that principle that's articulated in today's case - that discrimination against someone for being transgender is sex discrimination - will then apply to the court's analysis in the case under the constitutional equal protection challenge that's been brought in those cases", Levi said.
The ruling is a major victory for more than 8 million LGBT employees in the US, as many states don't have laws on the books protecting them from discrimination in the workplace.
Monday's case was specifically about employment, but the same legal interpretation will likely carry over to other areas, most notably health care - and that could cause problems for some of the Trump administration's policies.
Who are the winners in this fairly surprising Supreme Court decision?
Conservatives have argued Congress should change the law, not the courts. "SCOTUS basically just said the administration's theory is dead wrong".
It's a victory for the LGBTQ community in the fight for equality. A federal trial court rejected his discrimination claim, saying that the Civil Rights Act does not protect him from losing his job because of his sexual orientation.
"Today's victory is a necessary step forward on the journey toward equal justice for all without caveats or qualifications", Jennings said in a statement. "When I was sacked seven years ago, I was devastated".
The civil rights act of 1964 makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers "because of" their "sex, color, religion, sex, or national origin".