German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas on Friday described the sanctions, which include freezing the USA assets of chief prosecutor Fatou Bensouda and one of her aides, as "a serious mistake".
Pompeo announced the moves on Wednesday, saying that "the ICC continues to target Americans".
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, who called the institution a "kangaroo court" at the time, announced that the sanctions in the form of asset freezes would be enacted.
"As the President's Executive Order makes clear, the United States will continue to use any means necessary to protect our citizens and our allies from unjust prosecution by the International Criminal Court", she said.
Meanwhile, Maas urged Washington to reconsider its controversial decision to impose sanctions on the ICC officials.
The Hague-based court and the head of its governing board decried the step as an assault on the rule of law and the global system set up by the Treaty of Rome that created the tribunal in 2002.
Human rights groups also condemned the sanctions.
The United States has been criticizing the courts since its inception and is one of 12 states that have not yet registered.
President of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP), the management and legislative body of the ICC, O-Gon Kwon hit out at the sanctions calling them "unprecedented and unacceptable measures". "The prosecution has said, 'There is reasonable basis to believe that, since May 2003, members of the U.S. armed forces and the Central Intelligence Agency have committed the war crimes of torture and cruel treatment, outrages upon personal dignity, and rape and other forms of sexual violence pursuant to a policy approved by USA authorities'".
The US Secretary of State insulted the criminal court with its 123 member states, which has been in operation since 2002, as a "thoroughly broken and corrupt institution".
The US has not signed and ratified membership of the ICC and technically is "above the law".
A spokesperson for the European Union said Thursday that the EU stands firm against all attempts to undermine the worldwide system of criminal justice. The sanctions were immediately denounced by the court, the United Nations and human rights advocates.
Israel is not a member, but "the State of Palestine" joined in 2015, quickly filing a complaint alleging crimes committed in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip. He said the two would be added to the Treasury Department's "Specially Designated Nationals" list, freezing any of their US assets. All ICC trials have so far focused only on Africans - and a militia leader from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Thomas Lubanga, became the first person to be sentenced for war crimes by the ICC in 2012.