The indictment says Cuties appeals to the "prurient interest in sex" and the material holds "no serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value".
The French movie is about an 11-year-old Muslim girl who, according to Netflix, "starts to rebel against her conservative family's traditions when she becomes fascinated with a free-spirited dance crew".
The indictment, handed down last month in Tyler County, could see Netflix receive a fine of up to $20,000 (£15,480).
"Cuties is a social commentary against the sexualization of young children", a spokesperson for the streamer said in a statement via Deadline. "Asked whether the sexualisation of young girls depicted in Cuties constituted criminal conduct, Netflix offered only conclusory statements in denial".
Texas-based defense attorney Paul Saputo said the charge over Cuties is one of "the dumbest and most absurd" in the state.
That echoes the company's continued support for the movie and its director, Maïmouna Doucouré, who has previously said that she shares "the same fight" as those who have accused the film of sexualising the young actresses onscreen.
"I received numerous attacks on my character from people who had not seen the film, who thought I was actually making a film that was apologetic about hypersexualiation of children", Doucouré told Deadline's Tom Grater on September 3. Some went so far as to create a #CancelNetflix movement over the billboard and Doucour revealed she had received death threats over the controversy.
"It's disturbing to see a mainstream media company promoting the sexualisation of children", the Republican politician wrote.
Netflix later withdrew and apologised for the image, saying it was "inappropriate" and not representative of the film's content.
The French film first faced backlash last month over it's release after viewers complained about the overly sexualised nature, likening it to "child pornography". Netflix picked up the distribution rights after "Cuties" debuted at Sundance earlier this year. "We've now updated the pictures and description".