"There was Alexander the Liberator and Yaroslav the Wise, and there will be Vladimir the Poisoner of Underpants", Navalny added.
Pretending to be an aide to a Russian security official, Mr. Navalny subsequently made a recorded call to one of the alleged FSB agents named by Bellingcat.
"The main thing about this hearing is not how it ends for me, whether I will be jailed or not".
"The aim of that hearing is to scare a great number of people", Navalny said.
"I salute all the honest people all over the country who are not afraid and take to the streets", he said. You can't put hundreds and thousands in jail - and I hope people will begin to realise that.
"The President of our country said live on air he let me go to get treatment in Germany and you didn't know that too?"
The Prosecutor General's office backed the motion alleging Navalny engaged in "unlawful conduct" during the probation period.
"Coma?" Navalny shot back.
The report was seen as a rallying cry that spurred tens of thousands of demonstrators onto the street on consecutive weekends last month, with protester chants and signs referencing the investigation. More than 300 people were arrested Tuesday for trying to protest outside the court.
An investigation by the Bellingcat website found that Mr. Navalny was trailed by a team of operatives from Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) - including poison and chemical weapon specialists - for at least three years before the August attack, beginning shortly after Mr. Navalny announced that he meant to challenge Mr. Putin for the presidency.
Protesters were also detained in St. Petersburg.
Navalny's wife Yulia followed the proceedings from the first row.
In 2012, Navalny and his brother Oleg were accused of overcharging Yves Rocher Vostok, a subsidiary of the French cosmetics company, for services provided by their transport company Glavpodpiska.
Navalny, 44, was earlier jailed for three-and-a-half years for violating the conditions of a suspended sentence.
In recent days police have arrested many of Navalny's top aides, who assist him in his Anti-Corruption Network (FBK).
The money-laundering conviction is widely seen as politically motivated.
In court, Navalny thanked protesters for their courage and urged other Russians not to fear repression.
Mass protests in more than one hundred cities across Russian Federation were sparked by Navalny's arrest in a Moscow airport last month on arrival from Germany where he was recovering after being poisoned in August.
Russia's best known domestic critic may now have to serve the sentence behind bars partially or in full.
Dominic Raab, the British Foreign Secretary, said: "Today's perverse ruling - targeting the victim of a poisoning rather than those responsible - shows that Russian Federation is failing to meet the most basic commitments expected of any responsible member of the worldwide community".