The group said November 30 it would curb nearly 1.2 million barrels a day but that several nations - Libya among them - didn't have to commit due to exceptional circumstances.
Distillate fuels stockpiles, which include diesel and heating oil, rose by 5.2 million barrels, compared with expectations for a 1.1-million-barrel gain, the API data showed.
Firmer prices for WTI than for Brent were supported by an American Petroleum Institute (API) report showing US crude inventories fell 7.4 million barrels in the week ended December 30 to stand at 482.7 million, outstripping analyst expectations for a decrease of 2.2 million.
Goldman also said it expected Brent prices to peak at $59 USA a barrel by mid-2017.
Natural-gas futures, meanwhile, ended almost flat after dipped to six-week lows after data revealed a decline in USA inventories that was less than half what the market expected.
"API Inventories show a more than expected drawdown in crude oil inventories for this week", said Jonathan Chan, oil analyst at Singapore-based brokerage Phillip Futures.
For the last week of 2016, EIA reported an average daily refinery throughput of 16.7 million barrels of crude, with gasoline production at 9.5 million barrels, down from the previous week's 10.5 million barrels.
So-called "tax mitigation strategies meant crude cargoes remained offshore, rather than being brought onshore, where they would be taxed", he explained. The cut is equivalent to 1.8 million barrels a day, or roughly 2% of the world's daily oil production.
Traders said the decline came on the back of worries whether plans by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other leading producers to cut crude supply would be fully implemented.
The collective non-OPEC pledge is a 558,000 barrels per day cut.
Libya, the holder of Africa's biggest crude reserves, is ramping up output from its biggest oil field again after two years of internal conflict, the latest reminder of just how vulnerable OPEC's quest to clear a global crude glut might be.
-Sarah McFarlane and Jenny W. Hsu contributed to this article.